Graduate Study - Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
PhD Genetics and Bioengineering

Code Name Level Year Semester
GBE 611 Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens Graduate 1 Spring
Status Number of ECTS Credits Class Hours Per Week Total Hours Per Semester Language
6 150 English

Instructor Assistant Coordinator
Mirsada Hukić, Prof. Dr. Mirsada Hukić, Prof. Dr.
[email protected] no email

The closing decade of the previous centurysuggested that infectious diseases will require much more attention from patients and physicians in the 21stcentury. Recently discovered diseases pose a major threat to the population at large, and the re-emergence of established pathogens has been added to that threat. A large proportion of this problem is man-made, arising mainly from the unnecessary overuse of antimicrobials in hospital and community settings and from the agricultural misuse of the agents in animal feed. A consequence has been a dramatic increase in resistant strains of bacteria that were considered conquerable several decades ago, two examples being methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Viruses, such as hantavirus, influenza, and ebola, are also important to be mentioned in this context. Throughout this course, a graduate student is given an opportunity to perform an independent research of emerging and reemergingpathogens in the 21st century.

The cognitive, affective and behavioral objectives of this course are following:
Giving an overview of bacterial pathogens that are the major threat in the 21stcentury.
Providing an overview of viruses that are major threats in the 21stcentury.
Introduction to surveillance and monitoring basics

  1. Introduction to the course
  2. Severely invasive Group A streptococcal infections
  3. Bartonella infections in the new century
  4. Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
  5. MRSA in the 21stcentury
  6. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci
  7. Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae
  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
  10. Cholera
  11. Drug-resistant malaria
  12. Influenza
  13. Ebola
  14. Hantaviruses
  15. Controlling and surveillance


    • Interactive Lectures
    • Presentation
    • Discussions and group work
    Description (%)
    Method Quantity Percentage (%)
    Midterm Exam(s)130
    Final Exam140
    Total: 100
    Learning outcomes
    • Recall microbiology terminology
    • Analyze multidrug resistant bacteria that pose a threat to human health
    • Break down antibiotic resistance and its importance in the spread of emerging and reemerging pathogens
    • Categorize viruses that are a threat in the 21stcentury
    • Debate the importance and implications of monitoring and surveillance of emerging and reemerging pathogens
    • Fong, I.W. & Drlica, K. (2003). Reemergence of established pathogens in the 21stcentury. New York City, NY, USA: Springer.

    ECTS (Allocated based on student) WORKLOAD
    Activities Quantity Duration (Hour) Total Work Load
    Lecture (14 weeks x Lecture hours per week)15345
    Laboratory / Practice (14 weeks x Laboratory/Practice hours per week)15230
    Midterm Examination (1 week)122
    Final Examination(1 week)122
    Preparation for Midterm Examination11010
    Preparation for Final Examination12020
    Assignment / Homework/ Project12121
    Seminar / Presentation12020
    Total Workload: 150
    ECTS Credit (Total workload/25): 6